The Last Summer for Medical Students

12 01 2012

The summer between first year and second year of medical school is sometimes referred to as the “last summer” since it is the last time students can travel or take off before they start the journey towards USMLE Step 1 and then their third year clerkships.  With the angst building, first year medical students are actively deciding in the dead of winter what they will do over the summer.  One popular decision is to do research – this is not uncommon since residency programs are increasingly competitive and look for students who have a commitment to scholarly work.  However, there are a plethora of other things students could do as well.    As tonight is our “Intro to our Summer Research Program” for Pritzker medical students, I thought I would share some of the most common questions I get about the “Last Summer”:

  • Should I do research in a competitive field?   The answer here is to do substantive research that you are interested in with a “CAPE” mentor (Capable, Available, Project interests you, Easy to get along with).   As my premed advisor once told me, “Mickey Mouse” research is not going to look good to anyone (no offense Mickey).   The key is to find something you are passionate about – after all you have to tell this story on your interview trail of why you choose to do this and the answer “because I wanted to go into ortho” is not really that captivating to anyone (even to an orthopedic surgeon).   Instead, if you do something you are passionate about, like community health work, you can always tie it back to your chosen field.  Most residency program directors don’t expect you arrived in medical school with laser like focus towards their field anyway and expect to hear some type of journey or a-ha moment that drew you to their field.  Because competitive specialties are often reimbursed for clinical work and tend to be smaller departments, they depth of research opportunities may be more limited.  But, don’t forget that neuroscience research is relevant to neurosurgery – and oncology research on head and neck cancer is still relevant for ENT and so forth.  The best research is often interdisciplinary and crosses department boundaries so you should not be afraid to either.  It’s also important to remember that as a first year student, it’s hard to even know if you will be competitive for radiation oncology or associated competitive specialties.  You will need killer board scores, and great clinical grades.  So, while you may think securing the research with the Dept Chair will give you an extra ‘edge’, nothing and no one can make up for a poor performance on high stakes exams or clinical rotations.  So, don’t forget to study!
  • I want to go to country X?  How can I get a global health rotation there?  Well, certainly the urge to travel is strong in anyone (including me).  But, you need to separate your travel bug from a genuine interest in global health.  Most global health rotations are not a vacation – and may not be what you think of as “tourist” destination (despite the short-lived popularity of Off the Map).   Maybe your stars are aligned and your school or a nearby affiliate you know has a program near your hot spot of interest.  Usually, however, it is not that easy and you should consider how strong your affinity is for a specific country or location versus your interest in getting the best global health experience possible.  Global health programs that fund medical students are not easy to come by.  So, if you are genuinely interested in global health, it is always better to go with an established program and mentor to get the most substantive experience even if it’s not in the exact country you are interested in.  The other thing to remember is while this may be your last summer for a while; it is not your last vacation!  You will have time to plan a vacation to your designated hot spot if you can’t work it in this summer.
  • Do I have to do anything?  The answer here is easy – no, you don’t have to do anything per se with your ‘time off’.  Many students find themselves on the hamster wheel of endless extracurricular activities.  The real question is what is your goal? If it is to go home and see family and friends, there is nothing wrong with that!  The key is to ensure that you are doing something with your time off that will make you feel ready to face the second year of medical school.   It is easy to forget that there is a lot of time to participate in extracurricular activities at various other points in your medical school career.   The key is that if you will regret not spending time with your friends or family this summer, then you need to make time to do that.
  • What if I want to do everything because I don’t want to close any doors?  This is not an uncommon feeling for medical students. However, its important to remember that your summer work is not choosing a specialty! There is essentially nothing you can do over the summer that will ‘close a door’ – there may be some things that allow you to put your foot further into the doorway but that does not mean another door will close.   The only doors you close are the ones in your mind.   Most students decide on their specialty after their third year rotations and will often fine-tune their experiences in research in that area in the fourth year.   Another thing to consider is to do research in a cross-cutting area like ethics that could apply to everything.  Sometimes the angst you may be feeling is about making a choice that is wrong for you.  However, the truth is that as long as you are genuinely interested in the opportunity, you cannot make a wrong choice since it will be an easy story to tell no matter what you do.  Since everyone is different, it is always good to get individualized advice from a faculty advisor at your school who can comment on your specific career and research goals.

Finally, no matter what you do with your last summer, don’t forget to make sure you enjoy it!

Vineet Arora MD





Rising Above the Sea of MacBooks: “Edu-tainment” and Other Tips

12 09 2011

Although Steve Jobs has stepped down as CEO of Apple, his legacy for physicians-in-training is very palpable. Or should that be visual – As I looked into the auditorium of eager and bright incoming medical students this Summer, I saw a bunch of Apple’s staring back at me – sleek, silver and unmistakably MacBooks.  This is the millennial generation so why would I be surprised?  Maybe because it is more ever-present than before this year.  Could it be that the entering class of 2015 had more millenials?  Actually, another hypothesis has also been put forth that is equally if not more plausible…our medical school auditoriums were installed with new desks and chairs.  While these were well received, the desks served as an inviting surface just beckoning for the MacBooks to be placed there.    As a result, you’re never sure if you’re competing with Facebook, the worldwide internet, or even email messages that appear more interesting than your class.   Since lecture capture technology has made it possible for people to view lectures from home, it’s important to make attending lecture in person worthwhile.  Well, here are some tips for medical educators who ‘lecture’ in this new age.

1.  Engage in “edu-tainment” – As Scott Litin at Mayo refers to it, “edu-tainment” is the goal – entertainment via education.  How does one incorporate entertainment into lecture style?  Well, the easiest way is through humor.  This is difficult since not everyone is funny by nature so it may be that you have to inject humor in odd ways.

2. Play games – Games are inherently fun and interactive can stimulate a lot of learning and discussion.  While you may be thinking about computer games, easy games can often stimulate learning.  One of our research ethics faculty played 20 questions with the group of students to teach about landmark research ethics cases.

3. Turn into a talk show – There is nothing more boring than watching the same person for an hour give a talk.  It is much more interesting to watch a panel of people tell a story about themselves – whether it be a patient, another physician, or another student.  I still remember medical school lectures with invited guests that had this talk show appeal due to the lack of power point and focus on the story.  While I’m not suggesting a Jerry Springer approach, who doesn’t love Oprah – at least Chicago has several role models to choose from.

4. Showcase video – Video is one of my favorite teaching tricks.  One well made video can communicate a thousand research articles.  In our week of Scholarship and Discovery, our faculty used videos from Xtranormal (no it was not the famous orthopedics vs anesthesia) but a similar one.  One faculty who could not attend taped a welcome introduction, and another used a clip from “Off the Map” which is now off the air but is still an effective reminder of how NOT to perceive global health.

5. Use audience response – Use of Turning Point clickers can result in instant feedback and engagement with students as they see the results of their poll immediately. It also tells you how many people who up to class!  The only problem is that passing out the clickers and collecting them can be rather time consuming.  So, another possibility is to issue them at the start of class which is done in some colleges and used as a way to count attendance (until a brilliant undergrad brings in a bunch of clickers to class to vote for their lazier friends!).  Here Steve Jobs can help again – Turning Point has audience response systems for iPhones and iPads that can be used and automatically identify people- but it would require that everyone have a smartphone and purchase a license to the software.

6. Refer to the internet– Given that students are on the computer, you can take advantage of it and ask them to visit internet resources in class by showing them urls or web pages that are of use.  Sometimes you may actually refer to your own course website like we do.

7. Provide fancy color handouts – While handouts may sound like they have gone by the waste side, there is nothing like a fancy color brochure or handout to create a “buzz”.  It’s almost like a souvenir of their hard journey to class that day.  If you ever want to provide someone with a ‘leave behind’ that looks important, lamination is key.  A color laminated leave-behind is even better.  Pocket cards are some of my favorites.

Is there any guarantee these tips will work?  Of course not.  But, what’s the harm in trying?  While some professional schools have gone so far as to block wireless in lecture halls, the truth is that current medicine is augmented with the help of computers and online resources- so we should figure out how medical education can be too.

–Vineet Arora, MD





Can We Trust Medical Trainees with Social Media and Other Digital Dilemmas

18 04 2011

Last weekend, I was on a panel for internal medicine residents at the American College of Physicians Council of Associates forum in San Diego.  I was invited by Erin Dunnigan and Baligh Yehia, the Co-Chairs of the Council, a position that I have also held earlier in my career.  The topic – was about the debate on social media use among medical trainees and whether it was professional.  Fortunately, I was lucky enough to do it with my rock star colleague Darilyn Moyer, the program director at Temple, who also moderated last years panel on Mean Girls in Medicine with me.

The Temple chief resident, Brooke Worster, started us off by asking the much debated anathema in medical education – what is professionalism – and if it is in the digital domain, it’s even harder to describe.  Then she proceeded to show some videos of medical students that you could say exercise some creativity – from the harmlessly funny to incredibly poor taste and ranging from schools such as UT Southwestern to my own alma mater Washington University in St. Louis.

The questions from the residents were spot on and here were some of the Q&A that followed:

Medical trainees are people too – shouldn’t they able to express themselves in ways  using colorful medical humor either in a show or their profile?

The objection is not for class shows and parodies – those have existed since the very first class medical show that took place at the University of Michigan and called the Galen’s Smoker (this year’s name- “Spleen Girls”).  The issue is more complicated with public consumption of materials never meant to be seen by a public audience.  Then, when a video is seen by a patient, an employer, or another interested stakeholder, alumni, philanthropists, those that donate their body to science (to name a few), the meaning of the video is not clear and those individuals often lose faith in the medical system.  There have been cases where patients have refused care by a residency trainee after seeing their Facebook profile with images that don’t seem suitable for their doctor.  So, while medical trainees deserve the right to blow off some steam and exercise creativity, it should not compromise their ability to see patients or work in the future.

Shouldn’t we just trust students and residents to police themselves on social media?

The answer here is that while most students are capable of policing themselves, a breach of professionalism on the internet is like a NEVER event – especially if it relates to patient information or trainee information that could result in harm.  So, opting for a putting out fires approach will not be effective and it’s important for medical educators to teach students and residents about responsible use of social media.  The good news is that the more one uses social media, the more likely they are to be able to draw that line in the sand.  Our research shows that superusers, or more frequent users, are more likely to oppose regulation but are also more likely to believe that they are responsible for portraying a professional image.  So, by teaching people to use it appropriately, we may actually prevent violations and breaches.

Should schools screen social media as part of its application process?

Interestingly, some students and faculty in the audience advocated for ‘second chances’ and redemption if a student had a inappropriate picture posted since Facebook privacy settings are initially confusing and a student could be misguided initially. But, let’s face it… screening applications for admission to medical school or residency is hard and takes time.  People are looking for ANY red flag to set downgrade your application compared to others.  Don’t give them a reason.  Medicine is not unlike any other industry in which candidates are interviewed to see if they can get the job done and also represent that organization appropriately.  If a video is posted that showcases a student in a tasteless parody with your school logo or name in the background, a hospital or residency is not going to want to take that risk with you.

What can medical schools do to protect themselves?

Well, for starters, schools can have a social media policy that highlight that do’s and don’ts in this area.  Unfortunately, in a recent study by @kind4kids and @MotherinMedicine, most schools do not so we have room for improvement.   The second thing is that schools can also deliver education, not only on the negatives – or how NOT to use social media, but they can also encourage and role model proper use of social media through disseminating course materials, student press, recruitment and admissions, or communicating with their students.  A recent post on a new student blog actually has a Poll this week asking students if they would want to receive information via social media and the majority say yes.

What can students do to ensure that their digital image is safe?

This question actually came from a student that has the same problem as me – a person with another name who happens to be garnering attention for the wrong reasons – in my case, it’s someone with my same name who is an ophthalmologist and has been accused of blinding patients and has many negative patient testimonials.  So, what can I do – well I initially started on LinkedIn to try to distinguish myself from this person and I also took control of my own digital footprint using a Google Profile to highlight who I am and the links on the web that I want people to see.  (You’ll notice my Facebook profile is NOT on my Google Profile).

The same old adage about Vegas applies here- whatever happens on social media stays on social media.  Therefore, just like the national dialogue on health information technology, its important for medical educators and trainees to engage in a constructive dialogue and establish policies that both set standards and teach others how to meaningfully use social media.

–Vineet Arora, MD





How Technology is Changing Medical Education: Match and Residency Training

20 03 2011

This past week was the biggest week in medical education, which culminates in the Residency Match.   It also marked the swsx festival in Austin, featuring the best of technology and entertainment.  So this post is dedicated to commemorating these two seemingly unrelated yet simultaneous events.  The generation that matched are the doctors of the future who are extreme technophiles and not afraid to use it in medicine.  They may even make their career decisions based on them.  On the interview trail, they will often ask whether the program has an electronic health record.   So, as senior students embark into their residency, it seems only fitting to explore how technology is changing medical education.  Since there is a lot to say, I’ll write a follow up on how it is affecting preclinical education but the focus is on the match and residency training here.

Technology and the Match   During the 2011 residency match, social media was in full force, and the internet was atweeting as medical students, schools, and educators were espousing the #MatchDay and #MatchDay2011 hashtags.  Several medical schools actually embraced social media to actively announce where their students were going via Twitter, dedicated blogs, or Flickr (yes Eastern Virgina students wear costumes!).  As students celebrated by announcing where they were going, faculty (including myself) could welcome them into their own program.  Current interns could rejoice that they were that much closer to the end of their grueling internship, except that they were still going to be on call overnight, while the newly matched have restricted duty hours.

Students often wonder about the size and capability of the mega-computer that runs the algorithm that produces the matches.  Unfortunately, this year’s match was marred by a serious computer crash during the precious hours of the Scramble highlighting the worst case scenarios when we depend on technology.  The computer crash also does not bode well for the implementation of next year’s Managed Scramble which will increase the numbers of aspiring residents who will use the Electronic Residency Application Service to apply to programs in the post-Match mayhem that is the Scramble.  In addition, the current debate over the “All -in” plan will require heavier technological capability as international medical graduates will be required to enter the Match (unlike US Seniors, they can accept positions outside of the Match). 

Technology and Residency Training  Technology certainly increases our capability in monitoring resident duty hours and collect evalutions through Learning Management Systems like New Innovations or e-Value.  However, the implementation of electronic health records actually increases time to do work in many cases, which may make it harder to comply with duty hours.  Although decision support can improve quality of care, others worry that overreliance on decision support may result in physicians who subscribe to cookbook medicine and worse, can’t operate without technology.  For example, one program director stated that she was going to resort to a ‘blue book’ exam for residents to demonstrate how to do admission orders using the classic mneumonic ADC VAN DISMAL.

More interestingly, just like email and internet has made it possible to conduct business 24/7, the remote access of electronic health records makes it possible to work from home, after you leave the hospital.  This may come in the form of ‘epicstalking’ as our attendings and residents refer to it – the process of ‘following a patient’ by looking at the labs and studies through virtually logging in to the hospital’s electronic health record “Epic” from home, long after departing the hospital.  Attendings can use epicstalking to ensure that the hospitalized patients are receiving the therapies that are indicated and that the residents are presenting all the information (in essence a form of supervision).  However, residents often epicstalk to try to check to see what is going on with the patient they have handed off and gone home, a time when they should be resting.   With shorter hours, will more work be transferred home?  It is possible, and how this time will be counted in residency duty hours is still anyone’s guess.

In the meantime, maybe a consult to the supersmart Watson can help us tackle these problems? 

Also, stay tuned for part 2 which will look at technology and medical student education.

–Vineet Arora, MD





Student Doctor or Medical Student? And Other Teaching Hospital Names

14 02 2011

I recently saw a post in Yahoo questions entitled, “Is it illegal for a medical student to introduce themselves as “Doctor” before they have received their MD?”  One of the answers that was rated highly was “I think it is more unethical than illegal.”  Clearly, if a student is deliberately misrepresenting themselves as a ‘doctor’, it is grounds for disciplinary action.  More often than not, this misrepresentation is not deliberate on the part of the student.  For example, some of our prior work demonstrates that medical students often report that they were introduced by other physicians as a doctor to a patient and that to a lesser extent, students may not correct someone who mistakes them to be a doctor. 

Complicating matters is the propagation of the term “student doctor” at some institutions which is especially problematic.  After all, how many patients will be quickly discern that ‘student doctor’ actually refers to ‘medical student’ and not a ‘doctor’?  Unfortunately, patients who hear the term ‘student doctor’ may not hear the term ‘student’ and just zero in on the ‘doctor’ part, as they often wait patiently for their doctors to see them in the hospital.   This brings us to the problems of how doctors are named in teaching hospitals.  The system could not be more confusing.  

  • Interns – This is probably one of the most confusing terms in a teaching hospital.  Interns are doctors who have graduated medical school and are in their first year of a residency training program.  Of course, ‘intern’ is also the universal term for all those college students trying to get a short term experience on their resume by ‘interning’ there first.  So, why would a patient think an intern is a doctor?   After all, you would never put your faith in the legal ‘intern’ at the law firm to defend you in a lawsuit.   To make matters worse, there is the opposite problem.  Intern is often mistaken for ‘internist’, who is actually a doctor who has completed their internal medicine residency and otherwise a ‘doctor for adults.’  (Patients are more familiar with their “PCP” or ‘primary care physician,’ which could refer to either an internist or a family physician).    
  • Residents – Residents can refer to any doctor who has graduated from medical school and is in a residency training program (including interns). The term “residents” originates from William Osler’s era when residents did live in the hospital.  Of course, they don’t live there anymore  which would violate worker’s rights not to mention their regulated duty hours… but we still call them residents.  The other name residents are often referred to is as “PGY1” (post graduate year) which is certainly not an improvement.  
  • Housestaff – One of our premed college students just asked me what this term was this week.  I explained that while this does sound like the butler, maid, or cook a fancy estate, this term actually refers to the hospital as the “house” that the residents live in as the staff.  So all residents (including interns) are part of the ‘housestaff’. 
  • Fellow – This is perhaps one of the most disconcerting names for a physician as it may sound like it refers only to male doctors (and conjure up images of young man from England with excellent manners i.e. he’s a fine ‘fellow’).  In fact, a fellow is a doctor who has completed residency and is getting advanced training in a certain subspecialty. 
  • Attending- Attending to what you may wonder?  The attending physician is actually the doctor who has completed training and is legally responsible for the care provided by residents.  In other words, this is the ‘boss’ doctor as my residents sometimes introduce me to the patients on our team. 

A few years ago, we tried to improve the situation for our patients by having doctors introduce themselves with baseball cards with their pictures on the front and the roles of the doctors were displayed on the back.  While we were able to increase the percentage of patients who knew who their doctor was, we were surprised to discover that fewer patients stated they understood the roles of the doctors.   How did we make it worse?  Perhaps ignorance is bliss.  By trying to unlock the secrets of these names, patients realized the names we use in teaching hospitals are confusing.

However, this confusion is more than just a name, it is also a patient safety issue.  After 18 year old Lewis Blackman died in a South Carolina teaching hospital without an attending evaluation when his family kept asking to see the doctor, a new law in his honor aims to address the issue.  It requires that patients receive written materials describing the roles of the trainees on their team and also how to contact the attending if they have a concern.  More recently, the ACGME, which accredits US residency programs, has included a mandate in its now infamous policy restricting resident work hours that states “residents and faculty members should inform patients of their respective roles in each patient’s care.”  While it is not certain how this will be implemented at every teaching hospital across the land, it’s certainly time to make our naming system easier and more transparent for patients to understand.

 –Vineet Arora, MD





The “Social” Side of Hospital Rounds

17 01 2011

This weekend, I just finished another 2 weeks on service – the first 2 weeks of 2011 in fact.  This time, I had also had a shadower, but one of a different kind.  As part of our Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Open School, we are making an effort to have collaborative learning opportunities for our medicine and health administration program students.   Achieving true interprofessional learning is challenging for schools like ours without a pharmacy or nursing school.    

To jumpstart our collaboration, a team of us traveled to at the Institute of Healthcare Improvement conference.  It was there over dinner that Jeff Kunkel, one of the Social Work students, asked me if a lot of social work issues came up in hospital care rounds.  I laughed momentarily and reassured Jeff there would be lots of social issues and invited him firsthand to witness them on rounds.  Unlike the premeds that I sometimes take on the weekend, I wanted him to come during the week so that he could also attend the multidisciplinary rounds with our case managers and social workers that our attendings go to daily. 

The opportunity presented itself that first Friday – our team was on call so it was a perfect day since we did not have many patients and were able to delve into their problems.   While there are social issues every day, dealing with them becomes exponentially harder over the weekend when you only have social workers on call.  This makes Friday an especially important day to advance care or facilitate any discharges.  While some believe that doctors don’t work on weekends, the truth is that they do.  The problem is that not everyone else works on the weekend making the hospital inefficient over the weekend and nothing gets done.

 I introduced Jeff to our housestaff team as a social work student who was especially interested in the social issues.  For each of the presentations, they started with a one liner to brief our student on the patient’s problem but also described the social issues.  In doing so, the social issues that sometimes plague our rounds (and our residents) all of a sudden became the highlight of rounds.  The patient that leaves AMA, the patient who was homeless, the patient who did not want to go to rehabilitation but was too weak to go home, the patient who was uninsured and could not afford his medications…  the list goes on.

Afterwards, we had an opportunity to debrief.  It was fascinating to hear what Jeff found interesting.   He noted that I sometimes have to ‘talk patients’ into leaving the hospital.  I told him that the sad truth is that patients often expect to stay in the hospital longer than they can and should.  Not only is staying in the hospital dangerous and costly due to hospital-acquired infections and other hazards, hospitalizations are increasingly scrutinized to ensure that each hospital day is ‘medically necessary’ by auditors who are incentivized to penalize.   Given this, managing patient expectations becomes very important and something that the attending often ends up participating in. 

As we think about the increasing pressure to ensure that patients who don’t need hospital care go home, it is equally important to ensure a safe care transition to avoid a preventable readmission.  While optimizing these decisions requires clinical judgment, it cannot be done without thinking through and addressing the social issues.  This makes having a great social worker even more important for the future.  Unfortunately, like many other healthcare fields, there is an impending social work shortage as highlighted by a major capitol briefing held by the National Association of Social Workers.  While many of us tend to focus on the need to train competent physicians and nurses, we must not forget the that we need good social workers too. 

–Vineet Arora MD





Shadow Doctoring: Tips for Future Docs

10 05 2010

This Saturday, I rounded in the hospital.  I met up with Zainab, the president of the minority premed association for the University of Chicago, who asked to shadow me.  While she was doing research at the hospital, she had not ever rounded in the hospital before.  It was Saturday so our team was mostly off so it was just me and my very capable resident who is about to graduate and take a primary care job in the community. 

But, yesterday’s rounds was different and it was because Zainab was there.  Patients were excited to meet her giving her the thumbs up.  Medical students walked by and asked her if she was going into medicine and scurried away but said ‘definitely do it.’   My resident, in face, told her it’s a great career.   These positive endorsements were occurring in the middle of some difficult patient issues (one patient who wanted to leave against medical advice).  It is also May – meaning the students, interns, and residents are tired.   Even I felt energized as she was asking me about why I do this job and how I got here.

It was not the first time that I had taken shadower on rounds.  I run a program for high school students to get clinical exposure and research experience.  Interestingly, one of the high school students in the program was also in the hospital today interviewing a patient for one of the large studies we direct.  He looked so professional as he was preparing to go find a patient to interview for the study.  These students also shadow in the clinic and the hospital during the summer while they are doing research.  So, it had been about a year since I had a shadower with me. 

Shadowing is an important part of learning what being a doctor is like and doctors need to provide students opportunities to do so.  It is also a factor that medical schools consider at when making decisions about who to admit – does the candidate have an understanding about what a medical career is like?

So how do you shadow a doctor? Here are some quick tips for premeds looking to shadow.

  1. Leverage connections – Zainab found me through her other summer job where someone I work with through the College told her to contact me.  If you are on a college campus with a medical school, use your contacts through your premed office or via research opportunities.  If you are not on a college campus with a medical school, you could offer to shadow your doctor in your hometown or contact local hospitals through their volunteer or community affairs office to see if they have a shadowing program.
  2. Be flexible with when you can come – It may be the best time for you to observe is either early in the morning or during off hours, like weekends or evenings.   In the hospital, weekend rounds are sometimes easier to observe since many people are off so there are not as many learners on each team.  In addition, things are usually not so rushed since attendings don’t have to rush to clinic usually.  They may want to keep rounds short so they can get back to their weekend but they will probably appreciate that you are volunteering your time to do this on a weekend.
  3. Bring a notebook to take notes on what you don’t understand – I forgot to tell Zainab to do this so I gave her some paper and notes so that she could jot things down and afterwards we reviewed the questions one by one.  On rounds, doctors also use a lot of abbreviations so you may not be able to follow everything but you can jot these down and ask about them later.  Zainab later asked me what a “RTA” is to which my resident responded not to worry since he didn’t really understand renal tubular acidoses until this past year. 
  4. Wait to ask questions until rounds are over The focus of clinical encounters is the patient, not the student.  This is unlike routine classroom interactions and can be difficult to get used to but it is the reality of patient care.  Complex decisions are often being made and you don’t want to interrupt the doctor-patient conversation.  Remember you can ask not only about the medical jargon but about what else you observed.
  5. Wear comfortable closed-toe shoes and appropriate dress– This is very important since you may be on your feet for a while and its important to project a professional image as a visitor.  It’s also important that your shoes are not open-toed (sorry ladies) since your feet are at risk of coming into contact with equipment, body fluids, or sharps.  A helpful power point with some tips on dress here. 
  6. Reflect on your experience afterwards– During your medical school interview, you may want to recall your experience, the types of cases you saw or just generally how you felt.  Writing a short reflection on your thoughts is a good way to keep those memories fresh (but remember not to include any identifying information – see # 8).
  7. Don’t forget to follow up– Don’t forget that you were a guest on rounds so its good to follow up with a thank you for the doctor.  They may send more opportunities (shadowing or otherwise) your way if things went well.  Yesterday, I got a great thank you from Zainab and invited her and her group to a medical student research poster session open to the University community. 
  8. Respect patient privacy– There may be a patient who doesn’t want you in the room.  And remember, everything you see in the hospital is private and not to be repeated or written about in a manner that could lead to the identification of the patients involved.  If you aren’t already affiliated with the hospital in some capacity (i.e. doing research), some doctors and hospitals will require that you sign a form for HIPAA stating that you will respect patient privacy.

Good luck future docs and happy shadowing!

–Vineet Arora MD

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