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Tags: duty hours, medical student, residency, scholarship, writing
Categories : career advice, doctor, medical student, residency training
Over the holidays, I took full advantage of this opportunity to read a book from start to finish. I chose Daniel Pink’s Drive. It was actually recommended by @Medrants and I read it partly to understand why pay-for-performance often fails to accomplish its goals for complex tasks, such as patient care. However, the thing I found most interesting about this book was the way in which creativity is deliberately inspired and cultivated by industry.
I could not help but think about why we don’t deliberately nurture creativity in medical trainees. Why am I so interested in creativity? Perhaps it is the countless trainees I have come across who are recruited to medical school and residency because of their commitment to service who also happen to have an exceptionally creative spirit. Unfortunately, I worry too many of them have their spirit squashed during traditional medical training. I am not alone. I have seen experts argue the need to go from the traditional medical education that is fundamentally oppressive, inhibits critical thinking, and rewards conformity. Apart from the criticism, it is of course understandable why medical training does not cultivate creativity. Traditional medical practice does not value creativity. Patients don’t equate ‘creative doctors’ as the ‘best doctors’. In fact, doctors who may be overly creative are accused of quackery.
So, why bother with cultivating creativity in medical training? Well, for one thing, creativity is tightly linked to innovation, something we can all benefit from in medical education and healthcare delivery. While patients may not want a ‘creative approach’ to their medical care, creativity is the key spice in generating groundbreaking medical research, developing a new community or global health outreach program, or testing an innovative approach to improving the system of care that we work in. Lastly, one key reason to cultivate creativity in medical trainees is to keep all those hopeful and motivated trainees engaged so that they can find joy in work and realize their value and potential as future physicians. In short, the healthcare system stands to benefit from the changes that are likely to emanate from creative inspired practicing physicians.
So what can we do to cultivate and promote creativity among medical trainees? While there are many possibilities including the trend to implement scholarly concentrations programs like the one I direct, one idea I was intrigued by was the use of a “FedEx Day”. FedEx Days originated in an Australian software company, but became popularized by Daniel Pink and others in industry. For a 24 hour period, employees are instructed to work on anything they want, provided it is not part of their regular job. The name “FedEx” stuck because of the ‘overnight delivery’ of the exceptionally creative idea to the team, although there are efforts being undertaken to provide this idea with a new name. Some of the best ideas have come from FedEx Days or similar approaches, like 3M’s post-its or Google’s gmail. I haven’t fully figured out how duty hours plays into this yet… so before you report me or ride this off, consider the following. Borrowing on the theories of Daniel Pink, we would conclude that trainees would gladly volunteer their time to do this because of intrinsic motivation to work on something that they could control and create. And to all the medical educators who can’t possibly imagine how would we do this during a jam packed training program, lets brainstorm a creative solution together!
Vineet Arora MD
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Tags: advocacy, doctors, match, patient safety, payment, policy, primary care, residency, shortage, writing
Categories : doctor
I recently watched Dr. Atul Gawande on video describe how what American healthcare needs is pit crews and not cowboys. This sentiment is also memorialized in his thought-provoking writings for the New Yorker.
Interestingly, Dr. Gawande is not the first person I have heard to suggest such a thing. A colleague named Dr. Ken Catchpole actually studied Formula 1 pit crews and used the information to guide improvements in pediatric anesthesia handoffs. His observations were astounding and really highlighted how the culture of medicine is different from Formula 1. In Formula 1, pit crews have a ‘fanatical’ approach to training that relies on repitition. In healthcare, the first time we often do something is “on the fly”. Moreover, on-the-job training usually means ‘checking the box’ by attending an annual patient safety lecture. Perhaps the most important was the role of the “lollipop man” in pit crews. And yes, even thought it’s a funny name, it’s a critical job. As shown in the video, the Lollipop man is responsible for signaling and coordinating to the driver the major steps of the pit stop. When it is safe to step on the gas, the Lollipop man will signal to the driver. Sounds like a thing so perhaps it can be automated. Wrong. When Ferrari tried replacing the Lollipop man with a stop light that signaled the driver, the confusion created (does amber mean stop or go?) led to a driver leaving the pit with his gas still connected. Quickly after this incident, Ferrari announced it would go back to the tried and trusted Lollipop “hu”man.
So, who are the Lollipop men (or women) in healthcare? Turns out that Dr. Catchpole and his team observed that it was often unclear who was leading the handoff process that they were observing in healthcare. With team training and system reengineering, Dr. Catchpole’s team was able to reorganize the pediatric handover so there was a Lollipop man (anesthesiologist) at the helm.
While these handoffs represent a critical element of healthcare communication in a focused area, it is symbolic of a larger problem in healthcare – we are still missing “Lollipop men” to coordinate healthcare for patients across multiple sites and specialties. This is even more critical on the 2-year anniversary of healthcare reform and this month’s match results. At a time when we need to cultivate and train more “Lollipop men” to coordinate care for patients, we have had stable numbers of students who enter primary care fields. And like the lessons from the Ferrari team, it is doubtful that a computer (even Watson who is now working in medicine apparently) will be able to do the job of a Lollipop man.
So, how can we recruit more Lollipop men? While it is tempting to blame the rise or fall of various specialties and market forces, it is important to recognize that being this is a difficult job to do when the Lollipop is broken or even nonexistent. Without the tools to execute the critical coordination that Lollipop men rely on, they cannot do their job. So, the first order of business to ensure that the Lollipop, or an infrastructure to coordinate care for patients through their race that is their healthcare journey, exists. As the Supreme Court debates the future of the Accountable Care Act, there is no greater time to highlight the importance of the Lollipop.
–Vineet Arora MD
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Tags: advocacy, attending, hospital, medical student, payment, technology, writing
Categories : doctor
Recently, I was asked to speak about innovations in inpatient medical education for leaders in general internal medicine. Knowing that I would be last in a distinguished lineup of speakers and that my charge was to discuss novel ways to teach in the inpatient setting, I thought it would be important to review how its been done for a long time — so long that it is embodied in one of my favorite fairy tales…
You see, Cinderella dreamed of one day becoming the best clinical educator in the academic kingdom. Unfortunately, her evil stepmom “Mrs. Dean” scoffed at Cinderella and said “teaching does not pay…look at your hard working and loyal stepbrothers….“Bill” has been our primary breadwinner due to his high volume of Patient Care and “Grant” –yes, while its feast or famine with him, just got a big payout for his Clinical Research. Teaching? That’s no way to make a living. Go work work for them until you figure you what you want to do.”
So Cinderella toiled away…until one day, she met the Godmother of a grateful patient “Mrs. Fairy” who donated a small sum money to improve inpatient teaching…and with this Cinderella was able to transform herself into one of the leading teachers of the new curriculum (she was also able to get a raise to update her wardrobe!). She quickly became a hit among all the medical students and residents who were truly “charmed”. Then one day, at the stroke of midnight, Cinderella’s protected time ran out…and all of her work went up in smoke as she was forced back to her life of hardship seeing patients and doing research. The students and residents were distraught at the thought of losing their most prized teacher and searched the academic complex for her –they were so moved they wanted to award her the precious “Glass Slipper” teaching award, which not only is bestowed with honor, but also a promotion to become a tenured educator in the academic kingdom. And she lived happily ever after…
While you may think that this is the stuff of fairy tales (especially happily ever after), we all have Cinderellas at our institutions. And those Cinderellas want to teach, but they struggle not only with funding, but also the realities of today’s inpatient environment. So, what are these Cinderellas to do? Well, there are few of the ways to ensure that clinical teaching is rewarded – and possible resolutions for the New Year for medical educators.
- Focus on a gap that needs to be filled: Protected time is most likely be awarded to someone who is filling a need – think new curriculum that is mandated by LCME/ACGME or other alphabet soup organizational body. What is the specific need that you can fill with teaching? Often this may require thinking about a topic that may not exactly match your initial interest, but it is more likely to lead to funding for your teaching.
- Learn new teaching methods: Teaching methods for today’s wards are not well developed in the land of an organized chaos. By incorporating a new platform for teaching (think case blogs, video reflection, standardized patients, or a host of other ideas), you can breathe new life into an old topic. For example, using simulation to teach end of life discussion, or using blogs to teach about professionalism, can result in a novel curricular program that not only engage next generation learners, but also gains attention of leaders in medical education.
- Document the effectiveness of the teaching – it is only through methodological evaluation that one can document that teaching translates into practice. By showing that teaching can be linked to improvements in knowledge, attitudes, or practice, it is more likely that someone (maybe a fairy) will finance this teaching as critical to the mission of the hospital. Think about procedural training that shows reduction in central lines.
- Work with a mentor – Just like ‘big research’, mentorship is still important although not always emphasized. To be honest, mentors can serve to mobilize resources or promote your work with senior leaders.
However, regardless of these strategies, funding for teaching requires institutional leadership to recognize that the academic mission of teaching hospitals is still ‘to teach’. Of course, this mission is sometimes lost in the chaos of teaching hospitals surviving budget crisis in an increasingly competitive environment. So during this holiday season as everyone is reminded of the time of giving, now is a great time to remind the fiscally minded Mr. Scrooge in your C-suite that the greatest gift they can give is enabling a teacher to teach the future doctors of our nation.
–Vineet Arora MD